Diagram of a womans sexual organs

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Antenatal Care Module: 3. Anatomy and Physiology of the Female Reproductive System

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The uterosacral ligaments keep the body from moving inferiorly and orgnas. The round ligaments restrict posterior movement of the uterus. The cardinal ligaments also prevent the inferior movement of the uterus. The uterus is a pear-shaped muscular organ. Its major function is to accept a fertilized ovum which becomes implanted into the endometriumand derives nourishment from blood vessels which develop exclusively for this purpose. The fertilized ovum becomes an embryodevelops into a fetus and gestates until childbirth. If the egg does not embed in the wall of the uterus, a female begins menstruation. Fallopian tube The Fallopian tubes are two tubes leading from the ovaries into the uterus.

The moment when the ovum is released is called ovulation.

The other enlarging follicles degenerate. What could happen if two ova are released at the same time? The woman could become pregnant with twins. The enlarging ovarian follicles also produce the female reproductive hormones, oestrogen and progesterone, which are important in Diaram the monthly menstrual cycle, and throughout pregnancy. You will learn a iDagram more about these hormones in Study Sessions 4 and 5. Hormones are signalling chemicals that are produced in the body and circulate in the blood; different hormones control or regulate the activity of different cells or organs.

After ovulation, the lining of the empty follicle grows and forms a yellow body in the ovary called the corpus luteum, which temporarily functions as a hormone-producing organ. It secretes oestrogen and progesterone for about the next 14 days. Oestrogen thickens the fatty tissues in the wall of the uterus in case pregnancy occurs. Progesterone stops further ovulation from occurring during the pregnancy. Why is it beneficial to prevent further ovulation once a woman is pregnant? It means she cannot get pregnant again during this pregnancy, so all her resources can go towards nourishing and protecting the first fetus developing in her uterus.

But if pregnancy does not occur within 14 days after ovulation, the corpus luteum degenerates and stops producing progesterone. As a result, the blood supply to this additional fatty tissue in the wall of the uterus is cut off, and it also degenerates and is shed through the vagina as the menstrual flow.

Of sexual womans Diagram organs a

The levels of oestrogen can then begin to rise, and the woman can ovulate again in the following month. Sexial an ovary orhans a mature ovum ovulationthe fimbriae of organx fallopian tube catch the ovum and convey it towards the uterus. The male sperm swim along the fallopian tubes, and if they find the ovum, they fertilise it as you will see in Study Sessions 4 and 5. The lining of the fallopian tubes and its secretions sustain both the ovum and the sperm, encourage fertilisation, and nourish the fertilised ovum until it reaches the uterus. Its major function is protecting and nourishing the fetus until birth.

During pregnancy, the muscular walls of the uterus become thicker and stretch in response to increasing fetal size during the pregnancy.

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The uterus must also accommodate increasing amounts of amniotic owmans the waters surrounding the fetus, contained in a bag of fetal membranesand the placenta the structure that delivers nutrients from the mother to the fetus. You will learn a lot more about this in Study Session 5. Why do you think the muscular walls of the uterus become thicker during pregnancy? A thicker layer of muscle has the strength to support the growing fetus and the other contents of the uterus, which get much heavier as pregnancy proceeds. The uterus has four major anatomical divisions, shown in Figure 3. The wall of the uterus has three layers of tissue, two of which are shown in Figure 3.

It is not important for you wmans know zexual term for obstetric care. This is the tissue that builds up each month in a woman of reproductive age, under the influence of the female Diagdam hormones. What happens to the endometrium if the hormones stop circulating after ovulation? The Diahram supply to the endometrium is cut off, and it sheds from the body through the vagina as the monthly menstrual flow. Diavram is usually about 3 to 4 cm centimetres long. The vagina is a muscular passage, 8 to10 cm in length, between the cervix lrgans the external genitalia. Womane secretions that lubricate the vagina come from glands in the cervix.

In contrast, the labia minora are lined with a mucous membrane, whose surface is kept moist by fluid secreted by specialized cells. The opening to the vagina is called the introitus. The vaginal opening is the entryway for the penis during sexual intercourse and the exit for blood during menstruation and for the baby during birth. When stimulated, Bartholin glands located beside the vaginal opening secrete a thick fluid that supplies lubrication for intercourse. The opening to the urethra, which carries urine from the bladder to the outside, is located above and in front of the vaginal opening. The clitoris, located between the labia minora at their upper end, is a small protrusion that corresponds to the penis in the male.

The ovary contains ovarian follicles, in which eggs develop. Once a follicle is mature, it ruptures and the developing egg is ejected from the ovary into the fallopian tubes. This is called ovulation. Ovulation occurs in the middle of the menstrual cycle and usually takes place every 28 days or so in a mature female. It takes place from either the right or left ovary at random. Fallopian tubes The fallopian tubes are about 10 cm long and begin as funnel-shaped passages next to the ovary. They have a number of finger-like projections known as fimbriae on the end near the ovary.

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